Notes on how to pronounce Malay words in ‘Semoga Bahagia’
Singaporean musical group The TENG Ensemble did a cover of one of my favourite childhood songs, “Semoga Bahagia,” which translates loosely from Malay into “wishing you happiness” or according to Wikipedia, “May you achieve happiness.” Their use of traditional Chinese instruments for the song makes for a wonderful arrangement, led by local indie singer Inch Chua, who sounds great.
However, and some have noticed and commented on the ensemble’s Facebook post about the video, Chua does not quite get the pronunciations of the words right. Chua’s pronunciation is a highly Anglicised/Americanised vowel/consonant map, informed by her Chinese background. If the TENG Ensemble ever wishes to redo their video — and I think they’ve indicated their interest in doing so — here’s my notes on how to get the Malay words right. An understanding of IPA transcription will help in understanding this post better but even if not, I’ll try to transcribe it in an easily understandable format.
Note 1: The Malay language uses flapped/tapped r’s (/r/), which is similar to the r’s in Spanish, Japanese, and many other languages in the world. It does not use the rhotic r (/ɹ/) English uses.
Note 2: Vowels in spoken Malay tend to be preserved in their lengths and rarely shortened unless spoken very fast. Therefore words like “jiwa” should sound like “jee-wah” (/dʒiwa/) rather than “juh-wah” (/dʒɪwa/). When singing, it’s especially important to preserve the vowels since they become very apparent when shortened.
Note 3: Malay does not usually do aspirated consonants. There is strong aspiration in Chua’s d’s in “pemudi-pemuda,” which is how we usually pronounce d’s in English. Thus the Malay “d” sounds different from the way one would pronounce “dog” in English, which has an audible breathy release in the initial consonant. (Contrast the d consonant in “dog” vs. “dandan 淡淡”)
Note 4: In Malay orthography, “ng” is the velar nasal (/ŋ/), even if it’s between two vowel. Thus “dengan” is “duh-ng-an” and not “deng-gan.” (/dəŋan/) Same with “c” it’s a postalveolar affricate (/tʃ/) as in “ch-urch” and never an “s” sound.
And now for the second-by-second analysis! My comments will be in the form of (observation); followed by suggestion if applicable.
- Pandai cari [0:35] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- pelajaran [0:39] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- jaga diri [0:46] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- kesihatan [0:49] — Chua said kAH-see-ha-tan; kuh-see-haa-tan, preserve e vowel, don’t aspirate t.
- Serta sopan santun [0:53] — mispronounced, rolled r; SER-TA sopan santun.
- dengan [0:58] — good job on de-NG-an!
- bersih serta suci [1:23] — rolled r; do flapped r instead, preserve all r’s.
- hormat dan berbudi [1:27] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- jaga tingkah [1:29] — k consonant dropped; preserve the k sound in tingkah, but lightly released.
- Capailah [1:38] — diphtong aɪ changed to vowel a; don’t drop the i in ca-pAI-lah.
- pemudi-pemuda [1:42] — aspirated d’s; don’t aspirate d, especially audible in pemuDA.
- kita ada harga [1:48] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- di mata dunia [1:50] — good job on the d! This is the example of the unaspirated d.
- kalau kita [2:10] — a vowel changed to e (/a/ to /ə/); preserve A vowel, kAH-lau instead of kUH-lau.
- lengah [2:12] — added a g consonant; there is no g consonant, it’s pronounced le-ng-ah, not len-gah.
- serta [2:13] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- hidup [2:15] — Chua said he-daap (/hidap/); it’s pronounced he-doop (/hidup/)
- sia-sia [2:16] — Chua said saya-saya (/saɪya-saɪya/); it’s see-ah see-ah (/sia-sia/)
- jiwa [2:19] — Chua said juh-wah (/jəwa/); preserve all vowels, it’s pronounced jee-wah
- besar sihat serta segar [2:19] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- dengan (2:23) — good example of dengan.
- perangai pemudi [2:28] — rolled r, aspirated d; do flapped r instead, don’t aspirate d.
- cergas [2:31] – Chua said sergas, rolled r; it’s pronounced CHeRgas, ch consonant, do flapped r instead
- suka rela [2:35] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- berbakti [2:37] — rolled r; do flapped r instead. This word is also an example of unreleased ‘k’
- sikap yang pembela [2:38] — vowel was changed to p-uhm-bUH-la (/pəmbəla/); preserve vowel, it’s p-uhm-bAY-la (/pəmbela/).
- berjasa [2:41] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- capailah [2:44] — see before
- pemudi-pemuda [2:47] — see before
- rajinlah supaya berjasa [2:52] — rolled r; do flapped r instead.
- semoga bahagia [2:56] — bahagia was pronounced as bUH-ha-g-i-a (/bəhagia/); preserve the A vowel in “ba,” making it bAH-ha-gi-a (//bahagia/). It’s ok to break “gia” into “gi-a” for stylistic purposes but “ba” should remain “ba.” In Malay, “be” (/bə/) and “ba” (/ba/) are contrastive.
Hey, no one ever said Malay was easy, right?
Here’s an example of the song sung by a Malay person (I’m assuming) with all the right consonant sounds, although I think it’s interesting when he overdoes some of his r’s and turns it into a trill [0:33].
It’s a lovely touch that gives it a very folksy flavour, that I’ve heard sometimes older Malay Singaporeans do than younger ones. It’s not quite dissimilar in Japanese, where the flapped r can become a trilled r, called makijita (巻き舌 or rolled tongue), and it is sometimes associated with rural communities, and — interestingly — with the Yakuza and in war cries (“uorrrrrrryaa!”). Pay attention to how he pronounces his d’s, r’s, t’s, and k’s.
Hopefully this will help the TENG Ensemble and Inch Chua make a better second version of the song hitting all the right sounds of the wonderful Bahasa Melayu. After all, nobody wants to hear an ang-mor-cised version of our Chinese songs, do we?
(Woe…. da…. zheeeah.. gay woe! Eee shwaang zheeaan ding zhhh paaang….!!!)